Year/Century: 16th century
Description: In Procli Diadochi Duodeviginti Argumenta, Joannes Grammaticus Philoponus (490–570 CE). The world is eternal. Nicolaus Edoard, Lyon, 1557. Folio, first edition; 13 x 8 1/2 in. Joannes Mahotius translated 295 pages from Greek to Latin; printer's woodcut device to title; bound in complete original vellum, little weathered; title page and next 30 pages stained. A piece of vellum is missing in the lower right corner of the front cover. The text is written in Latin. Our author, also known as John the Grammarian, defends Christian creationism against the Neoplatonian Athenian Proclus, arguing against Aristotelian physics. John Philoponus, also called John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was a Byzantine Greek philologist, an Aristotelian interpreter, a Christian theologian, and the author of a large body of theological and philosophical writings. He lived from approximately 490 to approximately 570. His birthplace was Alexandria. John Philoponus was a contentious writer and innovative thinker who challenged the Aristotelian-Neoplatonic tradition. He questioned technique and ultimately paved the way for empiricism in the natural sciences. Philoponus was a rigorous and occasionally polemical writer. He was among the first to put up a "theory of impetus" over Aristotelian dynamics that was comparable to the idea of inertia as it exists today. Later in life, Philoponus shifted his focus to Christian apologetics and refuted the idea that the world is eternal, which served as the foundation for pagans' criticism of the Christian concept of creation. In addition, he published on Christology. In 680–681, the Church declared him a heretic after his death due to what was thought to be a tritheistic understanding of the Trinity.
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